Category Archives: Uncategorized

Who was the first female pharaoh in ancient Egypt?

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1900 AD, the famous Egyptologists discovered the tomb of William Petrie Merneith and by nature he believed belonged to a previously unknown pharaoh of the first dynasty. When it turned out that Merneith was a woman, she became one of the most controversial royalty Early Dynastic period: when his reign? How did you achieve power? The name was first thought to be a King, which caused some confusion in the order of the first rulers of the dynasty. Later it turned out that his name was Merneith the King & # 39; s mother, because a lot of seals found in the tomb of King Den.

Not only Djet his royal wife, but she was the mother of Den. The researchers linked Merneith & # 39; s family jellegzetességeinkben Djerba, Djet and Den. King was the father of Djerba, but no hard evidence. However, because of his mother's Den, he is more than likely that the wife of King Djet.

Merneith believe that the ruling will be after the death of her husband, Djet the thirtieth century. The title, however, was disputed. It is possible that your son Den was too young to rule Djet when he died, so he is ruled Den Governor until he was old enough to be the king in his own right.

The strongest evidence that Merneith was ruling Egypt Abydos in his tomb (Tomb Y), which is unique in the otherwise exclusively male graves. When his tomb was excavated, it was empty, but it turned out that the underground cavity is lined with mud bricks, which is surrounded by rows of small satellites at least 40 burials subsidiary graves. The servants thought to assist the ruler in the afterlife. The burial of slaves was a consistent practice prevailing in the tombs of the early first dynasty of pharaohs. Large numbers of sacrificial devices buried in the tomb complex, which is a privilege granted to other pharaohs if the prevailing strong animals to eternal life.

It was the custom that the early dynastic rulers in two tombs, one of the actual tomb and the other acts as a tomb. MeritNit Shofar is the only woman who has been commemorated in this way. He was given a burial structure Abydos and Sakkara.

Her funerary monument at Saqqara burial were craftsmen dedicated to working with him in the afterlife, and a solar-powered boat that will travel the sun god in the afterlife. The latter were usually themselves the right of the king, and this is an indication that he could be a very good governor and was a very powerful ruler.

These include evidence that Merneith ruled Egypt in the tomb was sealed Den son. The seal contains a list of top Merneith kings of the dynasty. Merneith & # 39; and his name was the only name on the list for women. He reigned but did not give his name appears as the "King & # 39;. And his mother '

Information about outside the Abydos, Saqqara except in very limited. His name was known that it means popular Neith and his stela contained the symbol of the deity. It indicates that there are already some force to the lower part of Egypt, specifically Sais where Nit cult center was located.

Therefore, only the two tombs and two stelas induce to think he was a person in a state quite similar to that of the king. In fact it is likely that the mentality of the ancient Egyptian rule in her condition never accepted or recognized.

Source by Lina Abboud

Basic Misconceptions slavery

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There are several fallacies in the Atlantic slave trade, but the worst misconception that Africans sold their own people into slavery. This statement means that parents are their children into slavery; They sold their wives, husbands, brothers and even parents are willing to sell to the white slave. It is a misconception to maintain the myth that Africans and African descendants is nothing more than a game, who sold his own flesh and blood a few trinkets.

This was based on a myth to justify the enslavement of millions of people in order to do freehand work and promote the superiority of the white race. The main train of thought was: How do you feel sorry for a race of people who sell their own people? Africans were clearly worse and deserves to be enslaved.

Despite the racial hegemony, which is due to the Atlantic slave trade, the biggest paradox is that some of it was true: there were Africans to other Africans sold into slavery. However, the Africans that had been mad kings or chieftains are generally captured and sold to prisoners in other African countries. They never sold their relatives into slavery. Also, people in Africa do not see themselves in Africa, unlike the people in America who feel that Americans, regardless of what state they live. Africa's different cultures and one of the only loyalty was to a & # 39; s own culture. Those who live in Ghana to feel any kinship with some living in Mali. To their thinking, the sales person of another tribe was not a bad thing. This is especially true if the various strains of war.

The Atlantic slave trade grew when many African countries were each other utensils. POWs can easily be sold to slave traders in exchange for weapons and other goods which do not have any idea how brutally enslaved Africans were treated the ship and later in America.

Furthermore, the concept of slavery of Africans was completely different to that of the Europeans. Slavery existed in Africa before centuries of the Atlantic slave trade, but this was a different kind of slavery. Africa, the slave usually had to rights under the law, and the ability to move up socially. Slaves were treated like owners, and allow legal marriages and their children are not born by the members of the family slaves. Some slaves were also allowed to earn money and eventually buy their freedom from the owners. This was not the case captured the Atlantic slave trade in slaves.

Despite the fact that there were some Africans who sold other Africans into slavery, it is not justified by the fact that millions of people snatched from their homelands and sold bondage money from the status quo. Africans in Africa and their descendants in America suffered the total loss of lies, heritage and human possibilities. The bulk of Africans sold into slavery in the Atlantic slave trade was a young adult men and women, as well as the loss of these young people has weakened Africa & # 39; s economic, social and political progress. That is why it was so easy for Europe to Africa's natural resources tape.

The ultimate degradation and humiliation of slaves who came to America from the Atlantic Passage treated as property and sold like cattle. Even the most despicable slaves in Africa has more rights than slaves in America.

Source by Kathy Henry

Bushido and Seppuku – The Code of the Samurai ritual suicide, and

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The concept of Bushido, the warrior path, probably began sometime in the 7th century Japan. The idea of ​​a warrior poet mediated Japan & # 39; s oldest existing book, the Kojiki. But it was not until the late Muromachi period (1336-1573), the term actually appeared texts. During this period, there are plenty of references Bushido ideals.

Loyalty is the master, filial piety and respect for the emperor and the beginning of the common concepts Bushido writings. These concepts clearly show the influence of Confucianism, the philosophy of Bushido. Samurai were expected to be fair, polite, quiet and always learn better themselves in the Samurai. The philosophy of Bushido Samurai ultimate goal to find an honorable death in battle.

Failure to abide by the Bushido code would bring shame after a samurai and family. Sometimes a disgraced samurai would be allowed to commit Seppuku, or ritual suicide, his master. Samurai who shame themselves should ask permission to commit Seppuku because it was considered an honorable death. Seppuku is used, the samurai, as recorded by a decent alternative enemies.

Samurai usually washed and dressed in white robes preparation Seppuku. It is also common practice to construct a "death poem", which is probably prepared in advance. The Samurai and then sit down in front of a prepared knife, called a tanto. In order to facilitate the act of a kaishakunin or escort is often called the "second", this will be a long sword. After the samurai tanto fell to the abdomen, kaishakunin then proceed to behead the dying samurai.

The West of "Hari Kari" is often incorrectly used to describe Seppuku. This term comes from the Japanese word "harakiri", which literally means "belly cut". This is a reverse of the kanji characters used in Seppuku (lit. cut stomach). Seppuku is generally considered the formal and writing while harakiri (non Hari Kari) used in the speech.

Source by Alton J Trevino

What Made Native American peoples vulnerable to European conquest of adventurers?

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What happens to European adventurers Indian peoples vulnerable to conquest?

There were a few features that made the Indians & # 39; European adventurers and vulnerable to conquest. First of all, the people themselves are ill-prepared for the European conquerors. Their number decreases rapidly as a result of starvation, forced labor, epidemics involving contact with European diseases and wars.

were accustomed to the economic, political and military aspects of Europeans. It lacked organization and political unity to resist the invading peoples. The different tribes often in conflict with one another and as they went about their daily lives with each other to compete for land and food. As an example, over the years the Aztecs accumulated many enemies in his own particular tribe. This is due to the competitive territorial rights conflict, the acquisition and exercise will help in the hole or foe, religious sacrifice. Cortés exploits the properties, forming alliances with opposing tribes. In contrast to the lack of unity were the Aztecs by the Spanish explorers highly unified society.

The Native Americans had the skills necessary to work with copper, but did not develop that are necessary to smell the iron so you do not have enough technology after the war with the invaders. When the Europeans arrived in the New World were welcomed by the Native Americans. The Indians considered the visitors to their beautiful warrior dress, beard, and these ships, but rather the technology they brought with them. The indigenous population was amazed with this technology than steel knives and swords, the bearded rifle which is a kind of jaw loader, the cannon, copper and brass kettles, mirrors, shells bells and earrings which used to trade goods and other items that are they were unusual in their way of life. It was legitimate, because the natives were not able to create these Europeans used by the wondrous inventions. Unfortunately for European visitors used their weapons of war causes a large amount of damage to the natives.

did not take long, serious problems began to emerge. When Europeans arrived in North America were 7,000,000 Indians. Most lived in hunter-gather communities or rural type. The biggest problem encountered was the Native Americans that no immunity to European diseases. That's not immune to these diseases in the European community felt the Indian tribes. Smallpox in the common threats are often contracted by the Indians to the European people.

The Native Americans will soon do not like the Europeans and their faith. Often he looked at the white man as despicable and stingy their wealth. This is something that the Indians had not previously encountered. The things he freely shared social order. The explorers considered that the insatiable desire of furs and hides. They are particularly fond of the European & # 39; and intolerance of religious beliefs, eating habits, sexual and marital arrangements and other aspects of their habits.

The Indians were used to being in tune with the spirit of nature, but the Europeans natural obstacles in their way. He looked at the gifts of nature as an endless supply of resources such as the forest a lot of wood, a beaver colony has unlimited furs and buffalo robes lot. The explorers have Indian & # 39; s resources deemed mature or religious conversion as a free labor.

Copyright @ 2015

Source by Joseph Parish

Among the symbolic kente fabrics Designs of Asantes and Ewes in Ghana

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Kente cloth is one of the most famous native of Ghana. The origins of the craft is shared by the Asante ethnic society in the southern part of the Ashanti Region and the Ewe ethnic society Volta region of Ghana. The time between discovering the art of weaving and plans two groups simultaneously. While the Asantes believe that they have learned the craft of natural grass which locks the ewes claim to have learned the craft of red and black striped cobra that totem. Whatever the case, there are interesting patterns and colors of the native cloth interesting symbolic meaning that reveals the values, norms and beliefs of ethnic cultures. It is essential that the wearers of the famous rag know what the designs and styles that they have to get the right occasions.

Asante Kente designs and names

There are basically five kente weaving pattern, which is derived from a variety of complex and varied patterns. These Adwin, Akyem, or Ahwepan Hweepan, Nkyeretire or Nkyereano and Faprenu.

• The Adwin anointed knitting pattern design sketch which is very nice. It should be noted in the intricate designs from the name Adwin (skills). It requires great skill and dexterity for the weaver to be able to come out with this bond drawing.

• The Akyem smeared sample should be noted on the color of nature. Named after a local bird feathers of different colors called the Asantes Akyem in Ghana. Because of the diversity of colors, but it is expensive and the wearing of the rich in society.

• The Ahwepan or Hweepan kente design pattern is not it hence the name & # 39; Hwee & # 39; Under & # 39; anything & # 39;. This is the simplest of all weave patterns. No wonder the woven amateurs and new students.

• The Nkyeretire Nkyereano kente patterns or designs on the sides only (& # 39; tire & # 39; or & # 39; & # 39 ano;) the center of the woven cloth is not planning to dress.

• The two samples per Faprenu or double (prenu) sheets of woven warp with a weft cover. Very compact, strong and durable. It is therefore represented an important personality of the indigenous Ghanaian society.

• Kyeretwie (kyere- capture, twie- leopard). This anointed bond drawing: a & # 39; s, to be able to live leopard. Due to the fact that this is a very arduous task, as such, it is characterized as associated with strength, courage and up. Bearer was considered as such. Therefore, this was characterized as reserved and limited to the big bosses.

• Adwinasa (Adwin- skills, Asa-weary). This kente kente weaver bond drawing is lived or applied skills and design to be able to weaving the cloth and have exhausted them all. This is a very complex drawings bond which is very expensive. It is therefore important personalities and leaders wear kente this pattern.

• Obo wood, wood Dade (partly stone, partly of metal). This bond anointed drawing worn funeral. This is reminiscent of the members of the bereaved families and sympathizers to the death of the man (or obo- dust), we must endure the loss of a loved one strong internal force (dade- than metal).

Asante Kente designs and names

• Ehianaga (Ehiana need money Ga). This means that money is needed in the Ewe language. This type of ewes in a beautiful kente weaving. The name implies that in order to buy the kente cloth requires a great deal of money. He represented the rich and famous in society.

• Lorlofukpekpe (lorlor- love, suffering has become fukpekpe-). This bond anointed drawing serves as a reminder to the wearer and onlookers that one & # 39; s expectations are not always met, and to reach a disappointment or heartbreak from those he loves, as partners, friends and relatives.

• Afiadeke Mefa o (Afiadeke- Nowhere Mefa- cold). It literally means to as the & # 39; Nowhere cool & # 39;. She advises that it does not aspire to be, what else is there and complain bitterly condition. It reminds us that the content or obvious who we are, what we have and the conditions that we find ourselves.

• Fiawo Yome (King Fiawo- Yome- second or next). That means the anointed bond drawing & # 39; a royal kings or second next to & # 39;. This is a very nice and expensive bond drawing. It represented an important person in society.

The symbolism of Kente patterns, which are discussed between the two ethnic cultures in terms of major and very popular designs of native cloth. However, there are a variety of other fascinating designs symbolic interpretations. Introduction of these symbolic connotations cloth itself deeper understanding of the culture of this vibrant ethnic societies in Ghana.

Source by Dickson Adom

De Young Museum – Artwork highlights and tips for visiting

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The MH de Young Memorial Museum in San Francisco, California houses one of the largest collection of American works on the West Coast. The museum is located in San Francisco & # 39; s Golden Gate Park and opened in 1895, the newspaper icon MH de Young, the founder of what is now known as the San Francisco Chronicle. The original Museum collection created exclusively for MH de Young & # 39; s personal collection of artwork that represents more than 300,000 articles collected over 20 years of world travel.

The Museum & # 39; s permanent collection now in the paintings, sketches, art, sculpture, photographs and works of art. E, De Young displays 25,000 works of art at any given time. The majority of the collection consists of works of American art collection dates back to the 7th century to the present day. Highlights of the collection include Wayne Thiebaud & # 39; and three machines, Frederic Edwin Church & # 39; s rainy season in the tropics, Grant Wood & # 39; Dinner and threshers, George Bingham & # 39; Missouri and sailors and Chiu Obata & # 39; s Lake Basin in the High Sierra.

The de Young & # 39; s permanent collection includes Art of Africa, which represents the work of more than 80 cultural groups in sub-Sahara Africa and ethnicity. Most of the collection is the permanent collection of the museum and covers a quarter & # 39; s gallery. Among this collection used a wooden sculpture Dogon religious ceremonies and a multi-headed bush spirit Ijo.

The third part of the Museum & # 39; s permanent collection of the Art of Oceana. The highlight of the exhibition is the Jolika Oceana Collection of New Guinea Art, a special exhibition of more than 400 tribal artifacts like tribal masks and ritual objects. The Jolika collection is the largest collection of New Guinea art in North America, and more than 400 pieces of art alone.

  • Hours: daily: 930A-515p; Closed Monday.
  • Audio guides are available at the main entrance. Cost: $ 7
  • De Young Memorial Museum free guided tours for all visitors. No reservations are required. Ask the Museum of timing.
  • If you are visiting San Francisco for a few days, consider the CITY PASS card. This will give you discounted entry to tourist attractions and Cable Car. Check the website for details.
  • The first Tuesday of each month admission is free.
  • The ticket contains the de Young day general admission to the Medal of Honor.

Source by Brian A. Goodwin

Magpie Symbol Meaning in Chinese culture

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In Chinese culture, the magpie is a symbol of happiness. The singing magpie foretells good luck and happiness. It & # 39; and why Chinese people call it & # 39; Happy Magpie & # 39;. The Manchu minority in northern China, even in respect of these birds sacred animals. The magpie called China & # 39; xi que & # 39; and the character & # 39; xi & # 39; It means happiness. Two magpies facing each other are used to symbolize double happiness.

Legends for magpies are also found in historical records about Manchu. One day when the sky goddess named Fokulon playing with her two brothers at the lake, a beautiful magpie flew over a red fruit in the mouth. The bird fell to the fruit and Fokulon picked it up and ate it. A few months later, she gave birth to a son (Bukulirongshun), and was the ancestor of the Manchu minority.

The descendants Bukulirongshun and he himself is all the brave and skilled warriors. These data represent the neighboring tribes as a potential threat. It was decided that alliance and wipe out the growing strain. One lucky boy Fanch escaped the slaughter and ran until dusk fell. This little guy almost caught when a magpie lighted on his head. Fortunately, hunters can not be mixed on a tree trunk when Fanch was still a gray area, as well as the runners ran in the other direction. The boy was saved by the magpie, and he was the only survivor of the genocide of the trunk.

The little boy was so grateful for the bird, which brought good luck and happiness. And because it is the Manchu people began to consider the bird as a symbol of luck and happiness. The man became Manchu China & # 39; and Emperor in 1644, and established the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911).

Source by Susan Wong

Elizabethan age superstitions

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Elizabethan superstitions reflect the fears of British nationals in the 1500s and early 1600s. The era is distinguished by a long period of peace and a stable and successful in the general population. Research, art, literature and expansion has brought new ideas interesting and scary to the uninitiated. These pagan superstitions and traditions blend of international folk tales seemingly supernatural explanations of events.

Good and bad luck

citizens Elizabethan era believe that some action will be invited, good or bad luck, as other measures to ward off bad luck. Someone was bound to be bad luck if they went under the ladder peacock feather (associated with gallows) held (the "evil eye" pattern), stir a pot counterclockwise direction (it would spoil the food), put shoes on the table (invited death ) or spilled salt (it's expensive and wasteful). In order to luck out and invite the good fortune to live in, people knock on wood (trees strong and natural) or shipping charm silver or iron.

Love and Marriage

concept of Elizabethan England fully embrace the romantic love and the traditions surrounding courtship and marriage emerged. It is considered good luck with your college wear a sprig of basil on his collar if you are looking for a bride. A set of superstitions grew around marriage as the bride's putting the right shoe for the first time or avoid marriage luck Friday the 13th.

The witchcraft and the devil

People were in the Elizabethan era a deeply religious man, and I he felt real fear of the devil and witchcraft. Since there was no scientific explanation for events such as sick animals or bad luck, they blamed witches. Elizabeth believed witches to cast spells and magic to keep certain animals, such as cats (especially black ones), bats and frogs. The black color is connected evil as were the numbers 7 and 13. The devil is believed to be free to move around and says, "Bless you" when someone sneezed was believed that the devil from entering their bodies.

Source by Jennifer Maughan

Ancient Greece Swords – The Greek Makhaira swords and Hoplites

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The word Makhaira Greek means to fight it. The Makhaira usually large knife blade that extends backward. This terminology means any type of bladed weapon, like a knife or a Sword ancient Greece. However, the Martial terminology refers to a curved sword only one alive. The Makhaira and Kopis similar, the only difference is that the emphasis of the blade. Not only one size of the shape of this sword is available.

And contrary to popular belief, this is not just a weapon to be used in Greece. Persian and Spartan teams use this weapon. Persian Archives show that the main infantry battle sword was straight, as was the Xiphos. Xenophon mentions that it was the ancient Greek Xiphos sword from the mainstream to the ancient Greek armies. He also thought that it was more efficient to Calvary Makhiara attacks.

Arming Calvary teams swords with curved blades become common doctrine over the years. Xenophon & # 39; Greek art and philosophy combined with basically says that the sword was the Calvary use was wider than the latest Sabre. It was designed more as an ancient Greek sword as the falchion. Sabre is a type of single-edged sword, which is usually, but not always, there is an edge, curved sword blade.

The Greek dialect of the New Testament or Koine refers Makhiara a general term meaning any type of sword. This term does not indicate any differentiation Greek sword blades or Gladius that Roman soldiers used. These weapons were used in most cases, the Hoplites and the Spartans. The Hoplite served the ancient Greek city-states, as a citizen and a soldier. Ancient Greek warfare was usually a variety of independent nations. The Hoplite had to resolve this dilemma.

Source by Garvin brian

Cutting Out Tongues of the Spanish Inquisition

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Spain will not start the practice of torture of heretics and blasphemers of the Catholic faith, also known as the Spanish Inquisition. However, the country did participate in torture, including cutting out the use of languages ​​Tongue Tearer.

The Inquisition began in the south of France at the end of the 12th century. It was not until 1480 that the Spanish Inquisition in Spain began in earnest after Isabella I of Castile and Fernando II of Aragon, known as marriage and during their rule of the Catholic monarchs.

The Spanish Jews were the first to come under attack, Isabella & # 39; s own kingdom of Castile. The king and queen, pursuing a policy of physical unification of Spain but also in the spiritual unity policy to bring the country one faith, the Jews were forced to convert to Catholicism (conversos when it became known), executed them or exclude them from the country. By 1492, the Inquisition 8 different Castilian town. In the 16th century, the Protestants and the target in the 17th century it became the turn of the Muslims.

The friend, Tomas de Torquemada became the first Inquisitor General. Apart from the relatively tame aspirations, such as the censorship of heretical books, Spain is also involved in several well-known practice of torture in an attempt to force the heretics and blasphemers convert to the Catholic faith in a country where previously the Jews, Moors and Christians lived together in relative peace .

The Tongue Tearer was simple torture. The mouth was forced open and the tongue Tearer out to grab the tongue with pliers. The bolts are tightened, and tongue ripped out. staggered teeth Some of these devices can also shred the language.

cutting only one language was used during the Inquisition and much worse torture device was used. The Enlightenment to put an end to the Inquisition, but unfortunately, not a religious fervor in general.

Spain is still a Catholic country but other religions recognized now.

Source by Vanessa J Alexander